flat roof load calculator Total load PSF Duration factor Live load PSF Roof type 55 1. be Ordinary flat pitched and curved roofs and awnings and canopies other than of fabric construction supported by a skeleton structure are permitted to be designed for a reduced uniformly distributed roof live load L r as specified in the following equations or other controlling combinations of loads as specified in Section 1605 whichever produces the greater load effect. Using the values determined above you can now calculate wind load with the equation F A x P A x Ce x Cq x Qs x Iw . Roof. Fixing and Installation Options. Dead load is the term structural and mechanical engineers use to describe the weight of all the permanent parts of any structure. Square tube assumes bending with one side parallel to the load think square vs diamond . Header Example 2. But as I said earlier proper design should ensure that this maintenance is minimized and that drains remain functioning even when seasonal maintenance takes a backseat to a busy life. Total Load. Jul 03 2014 Seminar presentation of HVAC cooling load calculation. Flat Roof Asphalt Finish Steel Beam Calculator Ltd was set up in 2011 to enable building industry professionals to design Apr 01 1998 Thus as the roof gets steeper the rafter gets longer and the weight of roofing materials increases. Location Province Ground snow load S s Wind Roof Calculator on Internet Wind RCI and Wind VRA calculate roof cladding wind loads and vegetated roof assembly design parameters based on the National Building Code of Canada 2015 Try Wind RCI Know the lower sloped areas and flatter roofs of your home. Enter the data asked for and the program will perform the wind load calculation for you. 5M by 3. Paullus Structural Consultants Wind Webinar 3 26 February 2013 Page 2 of 126 Company JOB TITLE Example 3 157 39 Building flat terrain Address City State JOB NO. Modified Bitumen 3. 99 Slope 8 12 0. 1 lbs 110 lbs 5. Last Revised 11 04 2014 Computing the unit dead load for a region of surface area generally starts by identifying the region of a roof plan floor plan or elevation where the unit load is needed then looking at a typical section of that area to see how it is constructed. ly VQgne9 . As a result the live load dead load and distribution of forces are different. 2 24. Rise and Run means that a 6 12 pitch roof has 6 quot of rise vertical for each foot of run horizontal . I need to submit a claim form to get reimbursment on shingles that are in need of replacement and on the claim form they ask for the roof pitch. PVC is 1. The truss is a framework consisting of rafters posts and struts which supports your roof. Flat roof span tables allow for a maximum roof pitch of 5 . California building code sets minimum standards for roof load bearing capacity. from construction maintenance W design wind load S design roof snow load and E demonstrate the straight forward process of calculating dead loads. Enjoy the videos and music you love upload original content and share it all with friends family and the world on YouTube. 2 488mm 16 406mm 12 305mm . Timber Carpet nbsp If you have any concerns as you are determining your flat roof snow load consult Online Snow Load Calculator for Buildings with Flat or Low Slope Roofs for nbsp Online Snow Load Calculator for Buildings with Flat or Low Slope Roofs for Balanced Snow Drift and Rain on Snow Surcharge Loadings calculator ASCE 7 05 nbsp What type of Flat Roof are you working on see diagrams and the measurements if possible. In the Dutch code for loadings and deformations NEN6702 1 and Example Hurricane Wind Load acting on a Wall Surface. a Example a 12 Post Spacing 8 y Use the Joist Span table to find the acceptable joist sizes for a 12 span 2x8s at 12 O. We offer you a wind load calculation for mechanical fixing roofing membranes on request. EPDM is 1. However if the attic is intended for storage the attic live load or some portion should also be considered for the design of Sep 22 2008 In England and Wales altitudes not exceeding 100m imposed snow roof load 0. Enter Square Footage Calculate or enter the Square Footage of the Attic or Area to be Vented Jul 26 2013 SAMPLE DESIGN CALCULATIONS APPENDIX . A. 34. A roof pitch calculator can make things much easier. 75 20 lbs 1075 2000 lbs 52. Snow load 2x6 Rafters 16 quot centers Garage 17 39 long 11Read More. Calculation of wind load action effects on flat roofs external and internal pressure coefficients for zones F G H I according to Eurocode 1 EN1991 1 4 The best part of a roofing calculator is that it offers a free insight into the total cost of the replacement roof project on a sq ft basis. org . and often a more rigorous calculation may produce a more lower wind loads. In order to stay intact and in place a roof must be able to resist loads both permanent and temporary that are pushing Span Calculator for Wood Joists and Rafters also available for the Android OS. Single Ply Membranes TPO PVC EPDM Rubber 2. 75kN m2 The timbers are undersized on a 3. As a homeowner living in an area with white winters you need to be sure that your roof is able to carry the weight of your region s typical snowfall. Jul 29 2019 Calc Strategy Calculation Heights Some calculations always based upon average roof height Other calculations vary based upon reference height In large structures calculate windward wall loads at every floor individually In 1 2 story structures might only calculate at ClearCalcs. Factor of Safety In the end after calculating the entire load on a column please do not forget to add in the factor of safety. 09 Now here is a quick calculation that explains why property owners in nbsp Pitched Roof Flat Roof. 1 S2014abn 5 Location 2Uniform load psf kN m Roofs Ordinary flat pitched and curved roofs Roofs used for roof gardens Flat Roof Structure. struware. Now If we consider the Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. This minimum wouldn t work if you have a flat roof. 10. Or if the building was poorly designed or constructed. House roofs should support 20 lbs. com STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS FOR Example 3 157 39 Building flat terrain Guide to Wind Load Procedures of ASCE 7 02 Roof Snow Load NBC 2010 Roof Snow Load NBC 2010 version 0. distributed snow load on the roof affected only by the shape of the roof before Windswept topography flat unobstructed areas exposed on all sides without or little calculation the force exerted by a sliding mass of snow in the direction of. For the most part live load and dead load values for floor and roof systems are considered distributed loads. This calculator determines the size of each tributary area of your deck. replacement roof details Actions Permanent Load Roof finishes Permanent Formwork F100 Gauge 1. Estimates Cooling and Heating Savings for Flat Roofs with Non Black Surfaces. Identify Flashing Conditions. Schilke December 2004 Nov 16 2015 Roof pitch is very important for right roof gutter sizing. Sika Sarnafil use specialist software to design the roofing system to BS 6399 Part 2 1997 code of practice for Wind Loads and also the new Eurocode Back to main menu Flat Roof Construction New Build Information Whilst many others leave the calculation of these critical factors to chance or pass on liability to the nbsp 12 16 19. The dead load consists of the actual weight of materials that comprise the roof plus any fixed equipment that the roof supports. Keep in mind that specific locations within these counties may have snow loads modified by local authorities. Feb 07 2019 ASCE 7 10 provides two methods for wind load calculation a simplified procedure and an analytical procedure. 3 Use Table 1106. shall be calculated in lb ft 2 kN m 2 using the following formula p f 0. An approach for small simplified solar installations or retrofits Ponding of rainwater is a special load case that can lead to roof collapse. asce. Visit the roof framing page for more information on cutting roof rafters and visit the roof pitch calculator for determining rafter lengths based on rise and run. Sep 12 2018 If your roof is flat it is more likely to have snow load problems than if it is pitched. Easy Rafters is designed to calculate shed roofs that are framed to a ledger board nailed against a vertical wall not freestanding shed roofs supported by walls at both ends. 15. Enclosed Building Internal pressure 0. Whether you re renovating an existing structure or extending your home a roof accounts for a large part of your budget so it pays to be forewarned with an estimate of your costs. Figure 3. Calculate the appropriate performance for your air conditioner. The lack of incline on flat roofing makes it possible for snow to collect on the surface rather than to slide off as it should. Videon James P. Simply plug in the values of your roof and it will show you slope percentage degree and even length. 21 Feb 2015 Calculate the weight of the snow on your roof. There are two fundamental options for fixing a PV system to a flat roof ballasted or mechanical. Also see Assumptions for Table Development. Ten inches of fresh snow equates to about five pounds per square foot which means your roof nbsp Wind Load on Solar Panels Analysis Spreadsheet to BRE Digest 489 case it is essential to calculate fixing forces holding a PV module and hence loads on a If you have a flat roof but it is not man enough to support ballast weight then you nbsp With WindLab Solar your days of squinting at little black lines on wind load charts are Wind Design for Low Profile Solar Photovoltaic Arrays on Flat Roofs . ASCE7 05 is the applicable design standard The wind force is P Qh GCp GCpi . However the snow On flat roof buildings all nbsp for a ventilated flat roof are conzpared and discussed. to calculate the average slope of a member the average slope being the slope of a nbsp 16 Dec 2013 4. Live kPa 1. 0 psf Total 16. Fortunately calculating the cost of a new roof is relatively straightforward. 5 psf 1 2 quot Drywall 2. Calculate the length of common rafters with this free and easy online tool by entering a dimension for the roof width selecting a pitch for the roof and the thickness of the ridge. 44 kNm2 or less need not The Importance Factor I used in calculating Pf may be considered 1. 19 kN m 2 7. Dwellings shall be designed and constructed to withstand either a horizontal and uplift pressure of 20 pounds per square foot acting over the surface area or the wind loads determined in accordance with ASCE 7 05 Sample Calculations for Using Joist Span and Beam Size CASE I SOLUTION Refer to tables for joist and beam size requirements. ROOF Live Load Dead Load Roof cover 1 2 quot Plywood Shuttering 1. Use Dulles Glass and Mirror 39 s Glass Weight Load Calculator to calculate how much weight your glass shelf can hold. Worksheets for quot Wall C amp C quot and quot Roof C amp C quot are applicable for flat roof buildings gable roof buildings with roof angles lt 45 degrees and monoslope roof buildings with roof angles lt 3 degrees. Lateral loads flow into roof and floor diaphragms and are transferred to the foundation via shear walls. and Kopp and Traczuk 2007 . Dec 10 2018 Structural engineers use the solar panel roof load calculator to come up with the correct load capacity of the roof material. S. 13. Choosing to go with a flat roof is something people have been doing for a long time. Aug 24 2020 Next calculate beam placements and how best to coordinate them with the rafters. I was looking for guidance in how other engineers detailed the condition and or guidance how the wind load is applied to roof. Loading. They represent the perimeter of the roof and account for approximately 15 of the roof surface. Components receive wind loads directly or from cladding and transfer the load to the MWFRS. 2 m is required Roof Snow Load NBC 2010 Roof Snow Load NBC 2010 version 0. 5 Permanent Load Safety Factor 1. Calculation Results nbsp Load 0. Ice and snow will typically accumulate more quickly on low slope and flat roofs. gt 100 Results required for. 63 Note that roofs exceeding an angle of 30 degrees may reduce the ground snow load. As you downsize your forward speed will increase. 2. 75 11 12 0. ft 4. Serviceability Strength Serv. Q. Calculation of wind load action effects on flat roofs external and internal pressure coefficients for zones F G H I according to Eurocode 1 EN1991 1 4 Jul 22 2020 Ludowici Roof Tiles Concrete Tile Roofing 6 11 lbs 600 1100 lbs 29. For IS 456 2000 the factor of safety is 1. C. R802. The rise of the rafter. Hello I have a flat roof onto which I am interested in installing some solar panel arrays. Total flat roof permanent action wGflatroof wGchip wGfelt wGjoists wGinsul Variable pitched roof load from floor joists 0. The steeper a roof s pitch the more windblown rain it can collect. Select and Re Calculate to display. Load Details Distributed Loads UDL 1 Load 1 39 Flat roof with no permanent access 39 Variable 0. . 2 to use gross floor area Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf 1. 76 when the secondary members are parallel to the free drainage edge. 7 3 ASCE 7 05 . Online Snow Load Calculator for Buildings with Flat or Low Slope Roofs for Balanced Snow Drift and Rain on Snow Surcharge Loadings calculator ASCE 7 05 for structural engineers construction professionals and building planners. Project Designer Climatic Data. 2 and EN 1991 EC1 . com FEA Snow Loads for Structural Design in Montana Revised 2004 Gregory P. 025 Type of roof Gable Topographic Factor Kzt Topography Flat Hill Height H 80. This house is identical to our first example except it is stick built. 5m Load 2 39 102. 2 This version of the calculator is for small and medium sized facilities that purchase electricity without a demand charge based on peak monthly load. For the design of an actual structure a registered and licensed professional should be consulted as per IRC 2012 Sec. They include The length of the rafter. . The dynamic force can be calculated as. If you have any questions or concerns about specific ground snow loads within the State of Wisconsin please call us at 1 425 741 5555. ROOF SNOW DRIFT SURCHARGE A N G L E Note a 15 increase in the allowable capacity of wood for loads that include snow which is a short term load Snow Loads 7 12 Cs 0. 29 53. Jun 07 2010 SAND2011 9066 . 1 mph Risk Category II Exposure Category C Enclosure Classif. Flat Roofs If your roof is flat or has no more than a 3 in 12 pitch you can calculate its total square footage by simply multiplying the length by the width. Roof Ridge Beams Loading conditions are detailed below. As you begin to calculate various costs you will see that the cost is a result of the interplay of many different variables including roof area in terms of footage measurement of any roof extras like The roof zone describes the amount of wind load that is subjected to the roof. Wind Load Calculator. Loading Roof trusses are designed to carry live and dead loads uniformly on the top and bottom chords. 0 ps Insulation 1. Alameda County CA 0 psf Dallas County TX 5 psf Dec 20 2019 Whichever roof type you choose make sure to work with your structural engineer to calculate the load bearing requirements of your roof. 5m Safety factors Deflection Limits amp Restraints Variable Load Safety Factor 1. This guide will help you prep for the big job ahead whether you re installing steel roofing or using asphalt shingles. Jun 08 2018 More Roof References. 2 to cross reference rainfall rate and projected roof area then read necessary drain size from the Table. Identify Roof Penetrations. C. 7. When there is no wind the air pressure on the upper surface of a roof system is the same as that on the underside. Accurately Calculate Flat Roof Load Accurately Calculate The load on a lintel comes from Masonry Roof Loads Truss Attic Cut Floor Loads Joists Slabs Live Loads Residential use Commercial use Industrial use Combination of above NOTE If you are not skilled in assessing loads please contact IG s Technical Team on 01633 486 486 e 1. 4 times the eave height a minimum width of 4 ft 1. CALCULATE VERTICAL LOADS continued Solution for 4 The vertical loads can be determined as follows Calculate Structure Weight by Level Tabulate Dead Loads by Floor based on ASCE 7 10 Table C3 1 Roof 2x6 Top Chord and 2x4 Web and Bottom . Find the column for your dead load and spacing and the row for your timber size to find the permissible clear span in metres. ft kg range is 85 110. The study by Kopp and Traczuk 2007 provides the basis for the lateral and uplift wind force coefficients used in ASCE7 10 2010 . The standard guide in the U. In essence you can expect that a flat roof built to California s building code can safety The important point to keep in mind when you use your truss calculator is that every truss calculation is completely unique and is based on the size of your roof and its specific dimensions. Gridirons over stages shall be designed to support a uniformly distributed live load of fifty psf in addition to the rigging loads indicated. Roof Slope Calculator. 2 Flat Roof Snow Loads ASCE 7 Equation 7 1 Although greenhouses rarely if ever have flat roofs the calculation of flat roof snow loads pf nbsp Flat roof snow loads of 30 pounds per square foot 1. Snow load is the downward force on a building s roof by the weight of accumulated snow and ice. In general materials used on flat roofs cost less than ones used on sloped ones. Include the area of any wall that will divert rainwater to the roof. The total load for each tributary area is then divided by the area of each footing in order to determine the load psf imposed on the soil. Sloping Roof Surface Snow loads acting on a sloping surface shall be assumed to act on the horizontal projection of that surface. range is 190 250 the weight per 100sq. The following instructions are based on the information contained within FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 1 28. 1 Expected gravity loads on roof. These may include Dead loads from the self weight of the roof nbsp Roof and Building Data. EXAMPLE C1. This can result in the roof being forced to bear additi Expert advice on how to repair built up and tar and gravel roofs including DIY tips on patching torn roofing and repairing blisters on a flat roof Join us to get great money saving tips cool ideas and valuable advice from home improvement expert Don Vandervort How often Only every month or two. If you have any concerns as you are determining your flat roof snow load consult with a structural engineer or roofing specialist. 0 psf Insulation 2. 76 metres 0. 75kN m2 Permanent 1kN m2 Width of load perpendicular to beam or height of load supported by beam 2. These may include Dead loads from the self weight of the roof construction. 55. 3 4 namely suburban terrain exposure and relatively flat or rolling terrain without. Installing a simple 1 600 sq. You can enter these values in any units you 39 d like including meters and feet. Department of Energy 39 s Oak Ridge National Laboratory Version 1. After finding out your roof pitch angles you can use the calculator to perform the calculations for you instead of doing them manually. ft lbs. Scott S. 117 inches per foot a slope less than 1 8 in 12 or nearly flat. Step 5 Calculate drains needed . The entire roof load is supported by load bearing walls which in turn transfer weight to the foundations of your home. You can also use the Wood Beam Calculator from the American Wood Council website to determine maximum rafter and joist lengths. 21 Jul 2020 Single Ply Membranes TPO PVC EPDM Rubber 2. Finally lateral load is more like a broad pushing that could move a structure off its foundation. Surveyors and structural engineers utilise data from tables below to help calculate the correct size strength and nbsp II 6 Full Scale Experiments for Wind Loads on. Components can be part of the MWFRS when they act as shear walls or Barlow Truss Inc. If you are interested in flat roof solutions there are many solutions available to you as a consumer. 9 kN point load Most areas exceeding 100m but not exceeding 200m excluding parts of Scotland Pennines North East England refer to BS 6399 3 1 kN m UDL amp 0. The pipe nbsp The flat roof snow load pf on a roof with a slope equal to or less than 5 degrees 0. As a result equation 7 1 which accounts for loss between events will result in a non conservative value. Fresh powder weighs much less than wind packed drifts. Gravel on The lack of incline on flat roofing makes it possible for snow to collect on the surface rather than to slide off. You need to supply the following information Length and width of your roof. 0 psf ARCH 331 Note Set 13. Building Codes 2018 International Building Code Also extremely relevant to roofs with sections on rain loads snow loads and wind loads Chapter 16 Structural Design. 2 kg m 3 35 m s 2 10 m 2 7350 N 7. also available for the Android OS. 025 Kh case 2 1. Flat roofs shall be designed to carry all imposed and dead loads acting on the structure of the roof. So wi This article explains how to calculate roof pitch courtesy of DoItYourself. Number of panels in array 2. The building is situated in Mohali Chandigarh in an upcoming Institutional complex on a fairly level topography. If the roof is a flat roof than this step is not needed. 0. Determine Roof Area. Floor Type kN m2 . Nov 06 2015 Roof snow loads for the following counties in pounds per square foot ground snow load will give you some idea of the wide range of specifications across the U. This includes the ground snow load for your area terrain exposure roof type pitch and run. Shed roof 2 12 slope . E. 0 psf D. This will amount to twice as much load on the exterior walls compared to a building with a center wall. 0 psf 7 8 quot Stucco 10. The sloped roof snow load p s shall be obtained by multiplying the flat roof snow load p f by the roof slope factor C s p s C s p f 2. Roof loads are used to determine the size of beams joists and columns that support a roof. Wing loading can make or break your skydive so you d better know how it works and what yours is . The dead load of the slab is simply the load caused by the self weight of the slab. Use our Roof Snow Load Calculator to determine your design roof snow loads. Multiply the pounds per square inch for each material by the square footage of the roof This Wind Design Calculator is used to calculate the roof edge design pressure. Oct 10 2016 Before creating a new flat roof or having it rebuilt you need to calculate what your expected structural load is. 60 For ground snow loads greater than 20 pounds per square foot the roof load is equal to 70 of the product of the exposure thermal and importance factors the ground snow load and 20 pounds . The thermal response factor method of calculating heat fluxes and temperatures gives values in good agreement with known in order that the heating and cooling loads may be nbsp REMKO Cooling load calculation. 4 Nov 2014 Roofs have greater wind exposure usually than the ground level and consequently lose more snow. Load Case. square foot of snow before they become stressed. Developed by the U. 25kN m2. When building a structure it is important to calculate wind load to ensure that the structure can withstand high winds especially if the building is located in an area known for inclement weather. Chapter 3. 6 metres the actual measurement to calculate the overhang is in this case 0. This will give you the kilogram per square metre psf or pounds per square foot snow load for your 3 12 pitch roof. If your roof is pitched enter the length and width of the flat area covered by the roof If your structure has a sloped or flat roof you still need to calculate the flat roof snow load. For ground snow loads greater than 20 pounds per square foot the roof load is equal to 70 of the product of the exposure thermal and importance factors the ground snow load and 20 pounds . Before moving on multiply the area by the snow depth in feet to find the volume of snow on the roof. Fill in our request form and nbsp do the low pitch roof stress load calculation for the snow load what are converted from corrugated roof sheets to flat plywood roof and now nbsp Just select the calculation type complete the simple form and make a secure payment. To accurately calculate the area of your roof you must first determine its slope or pitch. The run of the rafter. 5 psf 1 2 quot Drywall Ceiling 2. trusses purlins roof Roof Pitch Use recommended minimum roof pitches as specified by roof sheet supplier. What does wing loading effect In a simplified sense flying with a higher wing loading increases the speed of your ram air canopy. Steel Beams Supporting Cavity Wall Roof Floor Joists and Flat Roof. Phone CALCULATED BY DATE other CHECKED BY DATE CS09 Ver 10. Nov 04 2014 Minimum Flat Roof Snow Load Values. Roof pitches are described in terms of rise and run. 9 kN point load Load Limits on the Roof of a Building. 2Attic loads may be included in the floor live load but a 10 psf attic load is typically used only to size ceiling joists adequately for access purposes. UDL means uniformly distributed load which is measured in kiloNewtons per metre kN m . Live load PSF . Typical Unit Area Dead Load Calculations. How snow load can damage your buildings. 5. So we can calculate slab load to be around 6 to 7 kN per square meter. Unlimited Release . These calculations find the maximum shear force maximum moment maximum allowable roof sheathing waste i. The shapes and spans shown here represent only a fraction of the millions of designs produced by Alpine engineers. Duration factor. The most simple formula would be to multiply the density of the concrete by the depth of the slab. The following are the equation for determining snow loaing on flat roofs. 1. 58 kN m 2 Services General services Variable Load Imposed load on roof UDL Imposed load on roof PL Construction Load Snow Jan 31 2007 I am considering building a roof terrace on top of my kitchen extention which is a flat roof construction approximately 2. Review and Calculate. Nov 04 2014 Section 3. If your roof is more on the flatter side then it s expected to have a heavier load. Calculate the projected roof area contributing to the drain. Calculating for solar panel projects has never been so easy automatically determined on the basis of the location For all types of flat and pitched roofs multiple and different roof surfaces Wind and snow load are automatically determined nbsp 27 Mar 2018 The radical update of the BS5534 which came into effect in March 2015 emphasised on roof security and overall safety. The drift load shall be added to normal roof snow load. Trusses struts and props Most commonly the roof s internal support structure is composed of a fairly complicated system of structural elements designed to manage the load from the roof. For 22F of design temperature difference the factor associated with it is 34. Use our roof pitch calculator to find the pitch of your roof or find the pitch multiplier then multiply the area of the footprint of your roof by the multiplier to find the actual area. Shed Roof Pitch Calculator. Letherer Truss Inc. That s considered to be the minimum. If you need to replace your roof the cost is an important factor. Engineering Analysis. Fraction Precision Set 1 8 1 16 1 32 1 64 Decimal Inch Metric All Inch inputs and dimensions are actual physical finished sizes unless otherwise noted Two Point Loads at One Third Points on a Simple Beam Uniformly Loaded Beam Overhanging Post Calculator Log Beam Calculator Column Calculator Another Simple Column Calculator Rafter and Ceiling Joist Forces Combined Axial and Bending Load Calculator Steel I Beam Calculator Finding Modulus of Elasticity from Deflection Properties of Wind Loads for Solid Signs Other Structures Roof Top Structures amp Equipment and Other Special Conditions Bob Paullus P. 40 snow shingle Flat The most economical flat truss for a. Roof load width RLW and Floor load width FLW can be determined from AS1684 or from the images below. Calculating Loads . The balanced snow load is applied everywhere where the roof structure is located. For example if building is 24 x 24 and has trusses and the load on the roof will be for 30 lb snow load and a ceiling with no storage will total out like this. 24 610mm . Member Span 25 feet Roof Total Load Deflection Limit L 180 Right Support support is 0. A ballasted system adds additional weight to anchor the array to the roof whereas mechanical methods cover two key practises either they penetrate the roof covering and are fixed to the deck or they do not and leave the waterproofing system intact. 15 40 snow Calculating flat roof load. is a family owned and operated designer and manufacturer of wooden roof trusses in North Central Idaho. All of the potential load cases required to fully design an actual structure may not be provided by this calculator. 125 x 1 x 2400 300 kg which is equivalent to 3 kN. Plug in all of your variables and do the math. Wind loads are based on the design wind speed which is based on the geographic location of the building height of the roof exposure category roof type enclosure classification and risk category. Jan 17 2019 Now assume Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter and superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter. Height of the scaffold If your roof is not flat and you cannot climb to the peak to get accurate width measurements then you can add a multiplier for the pitch of your roof. Figure 1 Wood members installed to a design slope of 1 4 in 12 often deflect from the initial dead load to create a flat area toward the low end. Snow draft load from upper roof to lower roof depends on snow density length of upper and lower roof and height between two roofs. spancalc_google. As I am in a high wind area design is 145 mph I either need to penetrate the roof 50 times to anchor the panel mounting rails or use a ballasted system and avoid the penetrations altogether. and I used an assumed a roof area of 10x10m 100 M2 . P1106. 5 in. 20 Mar 2013 EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE FORCE ON FLAT ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for flat roofs EN1991 1 4 Tab. 30kN m2. Load Calculation on Column. Mounting system weight 5. 2x10s at 16 O. To do this they will calculate the dead live and transient load of your roof. 5 psf Roof Framing 3. Number of connections to roof 3. It is important therefore that a designer be able to calculate the temperatures and heat fluxes for any combination of materials exposed to any inside and outside conditions. The important point to keep in mind when you use your truss calculator is that every truss calculation is completely unique and is based on the size of your roof and its specific dimensions. On a flat roof it s very difficult for the snow to slip off. The example shows brick veneer construction see Figure 1 the roof pitch is 20 the rafter run is 3. Glass Weight Load Calculator. Weight of individual panel 4. At minimum any roof which may be used by maintenance workers must hold 300 pounds concentrated. Preferred method of installation Torch On Roll amp Pour Cold nbsp Roof calculation on demand Based on Eurocode 1991 1 4. 3. Sloped Roof Snow Loads Calculations and Regional Design. Live Load psf Span Calculator for Wood Joists and Rafters available for the iPhone. I have no problem determining the wind loads on the roof. 71 kg Boral USA Entegra Roof Tile Copper Panel Roofing 16 oz. 09 kN m 2 7. 100 mm concrete with 3. The dead load includes the combined weight of all the materials which were used to build the roof i. 4 1617. The purpose of the ROCKWOOL Load calculator is to assist customers in building their loads ensuring their requirements can fit on one vehicle. Eq. This beam deflection calculator is designed to calculate the deflection of a simply supported cantilever with a single load point at one end. Critical Layer. Stephens Fred F. Wind Loads ASCE 7 10 Ultimate Wind Speed 115 mph Nominal Wind Speed 89. Flat 45 ft x 60 ft 13. Take the roof s total square footage and divide by the total square footage handled by one drain. Ground Snow Load Pg psf nbsp 25 Mar 2020 If you own a commercial flat roof you may be curious if it can support a new packaged HVAC system or the weight of your maintenance crew. A hurricane with wind speed 35 m s is acting on a 10 m 2 wall. 8. After taking a few measurements use the roof snow load formula for flat or for pitched roofs to determine the pounds of snow your roof has to hold. 3 m roof constructed of 4 in. 10. The roof or the entire structure can fail if the snow load exceeds the weight the building was designed to shoulder. Roof type. The results are automatically fired. The second trussed roof is designed for a dead load of 160kg m 2 and a live load of 40kg m 2. Calculate the carport roof load using a combination of the dead load and live load measurements. 1 times the building lesser plan dimension or 0. Whilst many others leave the calculation of these critical factors to chance or pass on liability to the roofing contractor Sika Sarnafil use specialist software to design the roofing system to BS 6399 Part 2 1997 code of practice for Wind Loads and also the new Eurocode BS EN 1991 1 4 2005 UK National Annex Method. Widely known for producing a quality product for over 20 years Barlow Truss provide any type of wooden roof truss you need. 47 x 145 C16 400 centres Max permissible clear spans for joists for flat roofs with access for maintenance and repair only Imposed load 0. Rafter span tables Use these tables to determine lengths sizes and spacing of rafters based on a variety of factors such as species load grade spacing and pitch. Interior zones zone 1 have the lowest load and account for about 80 of the roof surface. TPO is 1. You can quickly estimate flat roof replacement costs for the following materials 1. Free Snow load pitched roofs Free for a limited period Flat Roof Snow Load Governs People Structural Roof Loads Roof Dead Load Roof Live Load Category Ground Snow Load Table 8. You can measure pitch with a 2 foot level and a tape measure Hold one end of the level against the roof level it and then measure the distance between the roof and the underside of the level at its midpoint which Mar 01 2018 NRCA has updated its Roof Wind Designer online application www. Mar 30 2020 The uplift load is the lifting effect exerted on a roof from the passage of air around it analogous to the lift on airplane wings . Thus the total heat gained by the roof is 300 x 34 10200 BTU HR. Jul 13 2020 You can use our Flat Roof Calculator to quickly and accurately estimate the cost of replacement. 60kN m2 cos 33 x 7. Bauder Technical Department can provide Wind Load Calculations on request in accordance with the UK National Annex to Eurocode 1 Actions on structures Part 1 4 General actions Wind actions BS EN 1991 1 4 . 91 9 12 0. much for the roof is Cornell 39 s online snow load calculator bit. 35 kN. IKO carries out a wind load calculation in accordance with NBN EN 1991 1 4 and its national annex Flat roof with a built up volume and a higher roof area. The designer must ensure that the installed roof system is able to resist the wind load induced by a building s geometry and location and that the correct calculation procedures are followed. Loading in the middle of the longest tube is a worst case for stress on a cage member. 18 Directionality Kd 0. roofwinddesigner. ASCE 7 05 Equation 7 1 assumes that the snow load results from multiple events. uncommon for heavy snow to result in damage to buildings including roofs and their supporting structures. The rise is the distance from the top of a stud wall to the peak of the roof. 85 Kh case 1 1. Flat Roof nbsp For purposes of occupant load calculation occupancies required by Table 1004. Porch the home services platform connects homeowners with quality home improvement repair and maintenance professionals and also serves as the exclusive in store resource to over 1700 Lowe s stores. According to HomeAdvisor the national average for replacing or installing a roof is 7 529 with a typical range between 5 132 10 026. 15 30 snow tile 47 30 snow 40 20 snow 1. 10 www. Insulation. Warm flat roofing Warm flat roofing using vacuum insulation Inverted roof protected membrane Cold nbsp Instructions. Jun 05 2013 The code wind load provisions for roof mounted equipment in ASCE7 10 2010 are primarily based on wind loads obtained from model scale wind tunnel measurements by Hosoya et al 2001 . Vehicle load is a static distributed load in the middle of the longest tube and is 1 3 the tube length. The load span tables for prestressed concrete lintels are very similar to the steel lintel tables with the exception of two values. 5mm Brickwork Plaster or render on BOTH sides 39 Variable 0kN m2 Permanent 2. Jun 24 2014 I downloaded installed and tried out Harmer Drainage 39 s free roof drainage calculator for a flat roof choosing a roof drain product line which has implications of drain pipe diameter and thus capacity geographic area the tool can plug in rainfall rates for the U. Roof loads are a downward vertical force on the home. Dec 13 2018 8. 90 mm A table of roof material weights including sheathing insulation and other decking materials. Together owners Steven Letherer and Bernie Letherer have over half a century of experience in the truss industry. This Flat Roof Calculator provides the total installation nbsp Calculate Draw and Print Gable Roof Framing Layout Plans Rafters Ridge HAP Inch and Metric. A single UDL Uniform Distributed Load was entered into the calculator with four loads Load 1 39 Ceiling beneath sloping roof 39 Variable 0. the additional wind loads which could result from changes in shape or size Windswept topography flat unobstructed areas exposed on all sides without or little is the weight density of snow which for this calculation may be taken. Overflow Provisions Rain Shadow amp Roof Slopes How to find Rainfall intensity How to calculate the area of any catchment How to find the Hydraulic Grade of 39 charged 39 pipes How to Design Box Gutters using the Code How to use the Extra features of the DP calculator Box gutters allowable width slope amp length Other Plumbing Codes How to exceed the The angle will be the roof pitch The opposite site is the rise of the roof The adjacent side is the rafter run The hypotenuse is the true length of the rafter. Default is 50 psf which you can change. the ASCE 7 05 lists weights and stresses for all building materials expressed in pounds per square foot. You need to use a snow load formula for flat roofs. Roof slope calculation plays a vital role in designing the roof. ft. 5 that metal edge systems except gutters be tested per ANSI SPRI ES 1 or ANSI SPRI FM 4435 ES 1 to resist wind loads in accordance with Chapter 16. Shear load is the horizontal pressure that could tilt a building. Here quot weight quot means the downward force the structure exerts on the Earth. A common choice for flat roofing material is EPDM rubber as it is highly durable waterproof and can be made from recycled materials. For each application a PDF download is available. total weight of array x 1. The safety factors use the numbers in the table below for strength. Roof Live Loads Largest roof loads typically caused by repair and maintenance pitch rise span Lr 20 R1R2 12 lt Lr 20 Lr horizontal projection roof live load 16 R 1 R 2 live load reduction factors R 1 accounts for size of tributary area of roof column A t R 2 effect of the roof rise Damage is sometimes limited to the roof covering proper shingles or built up roofing rather than to the roof assembly as a whole a pressure differential must exist across the roofing membrane alone rather than across the assembly. 1. Flat roof snow load are determined by the following method The snow load p f on a roof with a slope equal to or less than 5 degrees 1 in. Keller Jerry E. 37 kg Revere Copper Products EPDM Roof Membrane 60 mil Ballasted Membrane and Stone Ballast Only 10. SPS 321. 2 Cladding receives wind loads directly. You calculate this in pounds per square foot or usually abbreviated as PSF. These diagrams may also be used to determine roof load width for floor joists span configuration and load conditions. Workshops for Wall C and C and Roof C and C for flat roof buildings Galilei roof buildings with roof corners lt 45 degrees and ceiling corners with monosclosure roof buildings lt 3 degrees. inner surface of the walls and roof must also be known in order that the heating and cooling loads may be determined. Live loads result from snow and wind. IV 1 800 Second Windspeed Data at 10 ft nbsp Answer to a Calculate the flat roof snow load Pf which is equal to load S in the load combinations for a Risk Category 2 May 2013 The building has either a flat roof a gable roof with 45 o effect shall be included in the calculation of design wind loads by using the. On the UpCodes website. 3kN m2 Width of load perpendicular to beam or height of load supported by beam 3. 02 1 c c Wind loads. Related Posts. 5M. roof . 7C e C t I p g Roof snow load calculation on monopitch roofs metric snow loads forces roof Open calculation sheet Preview. 00 kN m. A flat roof requires maintenance much like any other roof. Ceiling amp . In this scenario you ll determine how much continual weight your flat roof gets whether from people walking on it driving over it or what kind of This table is based on Zurn 39 s Roof Drain Vertical Requirement for Horizontal Roof Areas at Various Rainfall Rates table. ASCE 7 16 can be purchased by accessing the publications tab of ASCE 39 s website www. Despite the failures that have occurred and despite the data that have been In a domestic property the steel may be required to support the load from a range of different structural elements these may include a flat or sloping pitched roof ceiling joists non load bearing timber stud partitions first floor joists and masonry walls. To calculate the weight of snow on a roof use the first two sections of our snow load calculator. flat roof costs 8 000 16 000 depending on the material you choose. Point Load Calculation 1. Dead loads include shingles and sheathing on the top chord and insulation and ceiling finishon the bottom chord. House roofs should support 20 nbsp My buddy asked me to help him install railings along the flat roof section of his house so he can use it as a deck. 83 10 12 0. 35 Length Between Lateral and the design loads for all members used to support scenery or rigging. 13 Apr 2018 Calculation influencing factors and options for ballast. The permissible weight load for glass shelves is based on thickness of the glass the square footage of the glass and the span between supports. I looked all over on my original blue prin If you are interested in flat roof solutions there are many solutions available to you as a consumer. 2 350mm thick concrete slab 584 0. In regions with relatively low snow load values the load from a single event may result in the peak loading. 25kN m2 Permanent 0. 2 flat roof load gt p g 10 Outline Minimum Roof Snow Load Thermal Factor Unbalanced Load Drift Load on Adjacent Roof Parapet Wall amp RTU drift Sliding Load on Adjacent Roof Ponding FAQ s 11 Unbalanced Loads Gable Roof Upper Limit Roof Slope change Lower Limit Roof Slope simplify Small Eave to Ridge Distance change 12 Jul 14 2020 Expressing this in ratio form our sample roof has a 3 12 pitch. 10 ASCE 7 2 yes . The calculator above applies this formula. Maximum Beam Spans for Patio Roofs Keep in mind that these are minimums for the spacing indicated you can select larger sizes to handle excessive loads or for appearance. Unbalanced snow loads occur when wind redistributes this balanced snow first factor accounts for flat roofs col es of calculation for unbalanced loads. 50 per sq foot making it the cheapest single ply membrane. 65 kg However a South Roof Load Zone home cannot be installed in either a Middle or North Roof Load Zone. The smallest pitch of a roof is 0. The result is the number of drains needed. Dead load is distinguished from live load by the fact that the live load will change depending on the environment around the structure. Aug 14 2020 Building Codes 2018 International Building Code Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures. Snow drift load is in a triangular shape with maxim load pd at edge between upper and lower roof and decrease to zero for a length W. Apply dead load using the weight of framing material roof covering and fixed elements of the gable roof. Here s how. This span table is to the format and methodology given in BS 5268 7. All windows and Flat roof with 15 cm insulation m2 W . A low end roof replacement could cost as little as 1 200 while a high end roof replacement cou Installing roofing is no small task but if you re up for the challenge you ll want to plan carefully. Shingles Asphalt 1 layer 2. This calculator takes all of this into consideration. Roof load live load design is affected by the shape of the roof whether it is flat curved or pitched. Figure 3a Flat or Low Slope Roof With or Without Roof Drain 3 2 load which building designers use as the starting point to calculate the. Applying for a wind load calculation is easy. Printed December 2011 . The above sizing data is offered as a guide only. 0 for use nbsp Roof Truss Span Tables. Total Dead Load. 01. It is important to list live load dead load and total load separately because live load is used to compute stiffness and total load is used to calculate strength. Rolled Roofing. A flat roof membrane is made out of a synthetic rubber and other compounds designed to move water from the roof and they are also UV resistant. Environmental loads such as snow water and wind loads should be calculated in accordance with BS EN 1991. com to include design wind uplift load calculations based on ASCE 7 16 39 s simplified approaches in Parts 2 and 4. The analytical procedure is for Calculate flat roof snow load pf 0. 4. Standard Loads of Materials. Posts These span tables are designed for a minimum post size of 50 x 50 x 2. Uplift Strength Uplift. 69 12 12 0. Several members are checked for their capacity to carry the new green roof loads with hand calculations. First figure out how deep the snow is piled up there. Concentrated means that this weight can be held by any one spot on the roof. 7m span. Steep Roofs Measure your house at ground level then add in the roof s overhang for greater accuracy. Use the span tables below to determine allowable lengths of joists and rafters based on size and standard design loads. Material prices. End zones zone 2 have a higher load than zone 1. It then determines the total load from each tributary area based on the design load of your deck. This easy to use calculator will display the wind speed by location via a wind speed map as prescribed by the above building codes. FLAT ROOF Chipping amp Felt. 15 Total load PSF . Exception from part 3 page 320 Use the calculator below If the mean roof height is greater then 60 and less then 90 Part 1 can be used if the height to width ratio is 1 or less. The run is the distance from the outside edge of a perimeter stud wall to the center of the house. SHEET NO. These spans were calculated using our flat roof joist calculation The roof pitch calculator is a convenient online tool you can use to quickly assess the pitch of your roof to determine the length of rafters you need. ROOF SYSTEMS FASTENING . bays with a roof slope less than 1 inch per foot 4. Floor Loads. or 2x12s at 24 O. 0m. Dead kPa 1. Our roof rafter calculator tools are handy for calculating the number of rafters needed rafter length calculator lineal feet of rafter board feed in ridge and sub facia and the total board feet in the roof. Shed Roof A shed roof slopes in one direction only. Calculating the load on a flat roof is a challenging task for the layperson that involves knowledge of building materials their weights and local building codes. 5 inches in a gust of 70mph winds. L 19 psf Total Load 35 psf EXTERNAL WALL Dead Load 2x stud wall 1. May 25 2020 Calculate the wind load. 75 kN m2 strength Class C16 Service Class 1 or Jun 02 2012 The live loads used for the structural design of floors roof and the supporting members shall be the greatest applied loads arising from the intended use or occupancy of the building or from the stacking of materials and Jul 21 2020 The average cost to replace a flat roof is 5 10 per square foot. Step Two Find the Snow Density. 9. 44. 7 m x 18. 5 97. Stack and Tank worksheet is applicable to the 600 feet long arch welded structure. 1 m 4 nbsp Flat roof snow load are determined by the following method The snow load pf on a roof with a slope equal to or less than 5 degrees 1 in. In Dutch building practice the most frequently occurring damage cases are failures of flat roof structures caused by ponding of rainwater. Or from the table above the wind load per square metre is 735 N m 2. 45kN m2. The width of the roof corners and perimeter are defined as the smaller of 0. The height of the roof and exposure and risk categories are factors that are used to convert design wind speed to an uplift pressure. The easiest way is to push a yardstick into the snow on the roof selecting an area that looks typical of the overall snow depth. 4 1. Slab Load Calculation Let Assume the slab has a thickness of 125 mm. Span Calculator for Wood Joists and nbsp For purposes of occupant load calculation occupancies required by Table Where flat roof snow loads exceed 30 psf 1. 30. warm flat roofing. After you obtain the roof slope factor from those sections in ASCE 7 10 the balanced design snow load for the sloped roof can easily be calculated using equation 7. 0 lb ft. Here is a brief review on how snow loads with the water equivalent of snowfall you can calculate it yourself load on a flat roof by the Cosine of the roof pitch. For example the weight per square footing for Asphalt Shingle weight per 100sq. Roof Type x. Wind Loads are important consideration in structural engineering in the design of a structure. In fact old A flat roof membrane is made out of a synthetic rubber and other compounds designed to move water from the roof and they are also UV resistant. 30 kN m 2 0. In other words the weight is distributed or shared uniformly by the members in the floor or roof system. The principle is the same however the higher the value the better the load bearing capabilities on the lintel. F w 1 2 v 2 A 1 2 1. A majority of roofs can withstand the weight of solar panels. 3 21 2013 1 Add Company Logo Here Wind Loads on Non Standard Building Configurations Presented by Donald R. The total load on the wall can be Let Owens Corning Roofing help you calculate exactly how much ventilation you will need for a healthy and balanced attic with our 4 step ventilation calculator. 5 psf 1 2 quot Plywood Panel 1. And a roof with drains requires more attention than one without. 19. following live loads Roof 20 psf Floor sleeping areas 30 psf Floor living areas 40 psf Wind Loads Wind forces are calculated assuming a box like structure with wind loads acting perpendicular to wall and roof surfaces. 0 September 6 2020. 7CeCt Is pg no Is roof flat If slope in 12 add rain on snow surcharge Section 7. Boards Joists. A completely flat roof is a poor design as water and snow will collect on it eventually leading to your roof collapsing in from the weight of it all. Most roofs are spaced at least 20 inches apart. Local building codes dictate the snow load required for residential roofs. The roof Pitch or roof slope will affect the interior volume of a building the drainage the style and the covering material of roof. 75 kN m UDL amp 0. Roofs are under a lot of pressure. If this doesn 39 t look like the arrangement you are trying to calculate go back to the beam deflection home page to select a more suitable calculator. I realize there are tons of. If you want to buy a home with a flat roof or you want to build your own and if the house is situated in a zone with heavy snows then you should calculate the capacity of the roof for snowfall and other roof loading. design to calculate the building snow loads as part of the structural design process. C26 902. Slope measurements are determined by dividing the vertical rise in inches for every horizontal twelve inch length. I am aware that in order to do this I need to be able to demonstrate to the local council planning department that the construction will be strong enough to carry the additional load of people amp garden furniture on the roof. Go to a snow load calculator and enter the information requested. 35kN m2. 0 ft Wind Roof Calculator on Internet Wind RCI and Wind VRA calculate roof cladding wind loads and vegetated roof assembly design parameters based on the National Building Code of Canada 2015 Try Wind RCI The loads shall be assumed to act vertically over the roof area projected upon a horizontal plane. Positive wind pressure in the sense of a downward roof load is almost never the cause of a failure. 90 per sq foot The roof is exposed directly to the sun it is flat with no vented air and it is non insulated. 25 20 construction or rain not snow load 55 1. Flat roof with no permanent access and altitude not exceeding 100m 0. roof. Click on a span to generate a full calculation you can adjust the exact span . amp Firings. Flat Roof Mono Pitch Roof Duo Pitch Roof Walls nbsp 2 Mar 2013 So if the recent blizzard left 30 inches on your roof the snow load of 37 quot There 39 s not supposed to be such a thing as a truly flat roof quot says LePatner. Examples of components include fasteners purlins girts studs roof decking and roof trusses. Theisen Michael J. How to calculate Wind Load on Roof Truss with Detail explanation of IS 875 1987 part 3 Watch More 1 How to Draw Floor Plan by Hand https youtu. I am in a 110 psf exposure C wind zone. 45kN The Venny green roof has shallow substrates on two types of roof the first roof is on shipping containers and is designed for a dead load of 250kg m 2 and live load of 100kg m 2. Roof Snow Load 1. 05x25 Total permanent load 0. e. This minimum will only work if the rafters are set 16 inches apart at most and if the roof doesn t have too much load. Estimate how much weight your roof can support. Location Province Ground snow load S s Building Flat Roof Problem Statement Calculate wind pressures and design forces on walls and roof of a rectangular building having plan dimensions 10m 50m and height 5m as shown in figure 1. 5 12. 6 27 561 Roof loads. 76 deg. 14. Wind loads may cause that the entire flat roof system or parts of the system to shift and nbsp wind loads roofs are divided into different load areas were modules situated in the Existing products for the purpose of mounting solar panels to flat roofs are dimensioning of such a plant only consists of calculating the needed weight to. 70 per sq foot. S. By checking the Exception box Part 1 will be used to perform the calculations. 5mm up to a maximum height of 3. Worksheet for quot Stacks amp Tanks quot is applicable for cantilevered structures up to 600 feet tall. Refer to SFPA s publication Southern Pine Headers amp Beams download in Publications that includes all size selection and allowable load tables. All versions of International Building Code since 2003 have required per Section 1504. K. 340 metre s and for an eaves width of 0. 2 and designed according to the minimum requirements of ASCE 7 10 . Actually with snow you don t get more load along the slope of the rafter you get the same load as a flat roof with the same run would get. Adding to SkyCiv 39 s already list of free tools is the new Wind Load Calculator for ASCE 7 10 AS 1170. The simplified procedure is for building with a simple diaphragm roof slope less than 10 degrees mean roof height less than 30 feet 9 meters regular shape rigid building no expansion joints flat terrain and not subjected to special wind condition. Copper Flat Seam 1. Structural Considerations for Solar Installers . 15 40 snow shingle 55 1. So the Self weight of each square meter of the slab would be 0. Snow varies in weight depending on the density. In order for a structure to be sound and secure the foundation roof and walls must be strong and wind resistant. com community member twelvepole. For example let s say you want to determine the wind load on an antenna that is 3 feet long with a diameter of 0. Established in 1989 our company is family owned and operated. The North Zone Middle Zone and the South Zone are identified on the roof load zone Jul 03 2017 The calculation of wind loads on a roof is an essential part of the design process. Knowing how to calculate roof pitch rise run and ridge board height is essential to any shed construction. Heat loss from a building with a quot warm quot nbsp We are often asked 39 What is a Wind Load Calculation FLAT ROOF MATERIALS AND DESIGN Calculating wind load for your roof will give you peace of mind confirm that you have carried out due diligence and ensure that the finished nbsp for pitched roofs flat roofs and ceiling joists. 44 kN m2 20 percent shall be nbsp A flat roof gable roof shed roof gambrels and roofs with multiple valleys and snow gathering points will vary the weight differential factors as will the number nbsp for some of the main roof wall configurations likely to be encountered in practice. Rain on Snow Surcharge pg gt 20 psf therefore rain on snow surcharge load need not be considered. II 7 Comparison of Design Standards on Flat Roof . flat roof load calculator

h9ooiikraaj5iqw7vxqh
bh2yqe2rpfpz
nogkv5od
ilofnke8yb
mvqwpzef9pknhxawsxl